Vocational Rehabilitation Services Glossary

Vocational Rehabilitation Services Glossary


This glossary is provided as a service to users of the Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) manuals by the Texas Workforce Commission (TWC). It represents TWC’s best effort to provide a centralized index of useful and important terms appearing in the VR manuals. This glossary does not represent TWC policy and is merely intended to be a tool to assist counselors, staff, and customers to better navigate the detailed text within the VR manuals.

TWC will update this material as necessary to incorporate changes to manuals, rules, statutes or regulations. Definitions within the manuals, rules, statutes or regulations, as appropriate, will control over the indexed terms herein. Please note that some glossary definitions are followed by a number indicating a footnote at the bottom of the page.

If you have any questions regarding the application of a term in this document to your circumstances, or if you identify any inconsistencies in the use of terms or the content in this document, please email the VRSM Support email box at vrsm.support@twc.state.tx.us.

The following words and terms, when used in TWC-VR, have the following meanings, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

504 Plan
A school’s written statement of services provided in accordance with Section 504 of the Federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is called a 504 Plan. Section 504 requires school districts that receive federal funding to provide a “free and appropriate public education” to each qualified student with a disability who is in the school district’s jurisdiction, regardless of the nature or severity of the disability. Appropriate educational services are designed to meet the individual needs of such students to the same extent as the needs of students without disabilities are met.

The negligent or willful act or omission by a person of mental, emotional or physical injury to a child, a person 65 year of age or older, or a person with a disability with resulting harm or risk of harm, as defined in Texas Family Code §261.001 and Texas Human Resources Code §48.002. Abuse may include physical, sexual or emotional abuse.

Acquired brain injury

An injury to the brain that is not hereditary, congenital, degenerative, or induced by birth trauma. Examples of acquired brain injury traumatic and non-traumatic include stroke, an injury caused by an external force, near drowning, hypoxic or anoxic brain injury, tumor, neurotoxins, electric shock, and lightning strike.

Action item

Message or reminder created by ReHabWorks or entered by VR staff to request that a task be performed or to inform an individual of or document an event in a case .

Action list

List of action items for a caseload or individual.

Admission Review Dismissal (ARD) Committee

A group of individuals, as described in 34 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), § 300.321, that is formed when a student is admitted into Special Education Services. This committee must consist of the student, his or her guardian, a school administrator, a special education representative, and a regular education representative. This committee creates the student’s Individualized Education Program (IEP).

Adult Education

Defined under WIOA Title II as academic instruction and education services below the postsecondary level that increase an individual’s ability to:

  • read, write, and speak in English and perform mathematics and other activities necessary for the attainment of a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent;
  • transition to postsecondary education and training; and
  • obtain employment.

Advance Payment

Payment that is issued for a customer service before the service is delivered.

After-the-Fact Purchase

Occurs when a good or service is provided before the issue of a valid service authorization (SA) in ReHabWorks.

Agency budget

Annual financial plan for TWC. The budget is based on state appropriations and on the federal budget for TWC programs.

Allocation of Funds

Process for determining who receives what amounts of funding. See also “distribution of funds.”

Ancillary Services

Goods and services that support planned services but are not primary interventions. Examples of ancillary services include supplies, medications, and books.


A formal process for reconsideration of a VR decision per TWC rules (40 TAC Chapter 850, Subchapter E), triggered by the timely filing of VR1505, Request for Due Process Hearing and Mediation because of a customer’s dissatisfaction with a VR decision about providing or denying services.

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)

“The science of applying experimentally derived principles of behavior to improve socially significant behavior. ABA takes what is known about human behavior and uses it to develop and apply strategies that are intended to bring about real-world, meaningful change in the individual’s behavior.”

BACB, s.v. “ABA”, accessed June 15, 2017, https://bacb.com/about-behavior-analysis/

Apprenticeship Training

A work-based employment and training program that combines hands-on, on-the-job work experience in a skilled occupation with related classroom instruction. Structured apprenticeship programs generally have minimum requirements regarding the duration of on-the-job work experience and classroom instruction, and/or may use competency-based elements. However, these programs should have mechanisms in place to ensure quality and consistency of skills acquisition. Apprenticeship programs are distinguished from other work-based efforts, including co-op education, on-the-job training, and internships, as apprenticeship programs:

  • include supervision and structured mentoring;
  • provide for wage increases as an apprentice’s skills increase;
  • are based on an employer-employee relationship; and
  • provide an industry recognized certificate of completion of the program.

Arranged Service

Payment method used on a service record to describe a good or service that will be purchased by some source other than TWC-VR.


Services provided and activities performed to determine an individual’s eligibility for Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) services and/or the nature and scope of VR services to be included in the Individualized Plan for Employment (IPE). Included here are trial work experiences and extended evaluation. Assessments to determine eligibility, assignment of a priority category, or the nature or scope of services to be included on the IPE include, but are not limited to, psychological assessments; audiological evaluations; dental and medical exams; and other assessments of personality, interests, interpersonal skills, intelligence and related functional capacities, educational achievements, work experience, vocational aptitudes, personal and social adjustments, and employment opportunities for the individual. Also considered are the medical, psychiatric, psychological, and other pertinent vocational, educational, cultural, social, recreational, and environmental factors that affect the employment and rehabilitation needs of the individual. See also 34 CFR 361.5(b)(6) and 34 CFR 361.48.


What a business owns or is legally due, such as equipment and property, including all cash the business has currently.

Business Dictionary, s.v. “Assets”, accessed July 25, 2017, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/asset.html

Asset Discovery

The process used to collect information about a customer in Project SEARCH.

Project SEARCH, s.v. “Asset Discovery”, accessed June 15, 2017, http://www.projectsearch.us/

Assistive Technology Device

“Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities.”

29 United States Code (U.S.C.) §§705(3) and 3002(4)

Assistive Technology Service

“Any service that directly assists an individual with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device.” [29 U.S.C. §§705(4) and 3002(5)]

(5) Assistive technology service

The term “assistive technology service” means any service that directly assists an individual with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device. Such term includes—

(A) the evaluation of the assistive technology needs of an individual with a disability, including a functional evaluation of the impact of the provision of appropriate assistive technology and appropriate services to the individual in the customary environment of the individual;

(B) a service consisting of purchasing, leasing, or otherwise providing for the acquisition of assistive technology devices by individuals with disabilities;

(C) a service consisting of selecting, designing, fitting, customizing, adapting, applying, maintaining, repairing, replacing, or donating assistive technology devices;

(D) coordination and use of necessary therapies, interventions, or services with assistive technology devices, such as therapies, interventions, or services associated with education and rehabilitation plans and programs;

(E) training or technical assistance for an individual with a disability or, where appropriate, the family members, guardians, advocates, or authorized representatives of such an individual;

(F) training or technical assistance for professionals (including individuals providing education and rehabilitation services and entities that manufacture or sell assistive technology devices), employers, providers of employment and training services, or other individuals who provide services to, employ, or are otherwise substantially involved in the major life functions of individuals with disabilities; and

(G) a service consisting of expanding the availability of access to technology

Audiological Services

Evaluation, treatment, and services of hearing, balance, or related disorders.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized, in varying degrees, by persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including deficits in social reciprocity, nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction, and skills in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition DSM 5 299.00 (F84.0)

Availabel Funds

Unobligated budget, calculated as follows: total budget (unallocated budget plus requisition budget) less total encumbrance (outstanding encumbrances—not paid and total paid).

Balance Sheet

A key financial document in a business plan, it lists the current assets and liabilities of the business.

Baseline Budget

Funds available for operating expenses based on last year’s expenses.

Basic Academic Remedial/Literacy Training

Literacy training or training provided to remediate basic academic skills necessary for an individual to function on the job in the competitive labor market

Begin Date

Date that the service is expected to start or that the initial delivery of a good is expected; when referring to contracts, the begin date is the initial date on which contracted goods or services can be purchased from the contracted vendor.

Behavior Management

“A set of coordinated services that provide an individual with specialized interventions designed to increase adaptive behaviors and to reduce maladaptive or socially unacceptable behaviors.”

Benchmarks Specific Employment

Related results achieved as a customer progresses through the job placement or supported employment processes.

Benefits Counseling

Assistance provided to an individual who is interested in becoming employed but is uncertain of the impact that work income will have on any disability benefits and entitlements being received, and/or is not aware of benefits, such as access to healthcare, that might be available to support any work attempt.

This typically involves an analysis of an individual’s current benefits, such as Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI), the individual’s financial situation, and the effect that different income levels from work will have on the individual’s future financial situation. This assistance is intended to provide the individual with an opportunity to make an informed choice regarding the pursuit of employment. Ongoing assistance may also be provided as the individual determines employment goals, searches for jobs, and finds employment.

Benefits Planning

Process of reviewing a customer’s Social Security and other benefits to determine the impact of employment and to develop strategies to ensure that the customer gains resources to address lost benefits or understands reporting requirements to keep benefits.

Benefits Planning Query Handbook – Social Security, s.v. “Benefits Planning”, accessed June 15, 2017, https://www.ssa.gov/disabilityresearch/documents/BPQY_Handbook_Version%205.2_7.19.2012.pdf

Benefits Planning Query (BPQY)

Provides information on type of SSI/SSDI benefit, amount of cash benefit, overpayment status, medical review date, health insurance, work incentives used, non-certified yearly total of earnings, and more.

Benefits Planning Query Handbook Social Security, s.v. “Benefits Planning Query”, accessed June 2017, hhttps://www.ssa.gov/disabilityresearch/documents/BPQY_Handbook_Version%205.2_7.19.2012.pdf

Benefits Subject Matter Resource Staff

VR staff that provides information and technical assistance about federal benefits and work incentives.

Benefits Summary and Analysis (BSA)

A written document generated by a community work incentive coordinator (CWIC) that provides in-depth information about all publicly funded benefits that a customer receives.

Best-value Purchasing

A purchasing decision that is based on a balance between quality, timeliness, service after the sale, and cost.


In the context of state business, a two-year cycle that begins September 1 of each odd-numbered year and ends August 31 of the next odd-numbered year.

Blind Children’s Program

Blind Children’s Vocational Discovery and Development Program is administered by Texas Health & Human Services Commission (HHSC) effective September 1, 2016. This program provides rehabilitation services for blind and visually impaired children between the ages of birth and 22 years of age and their families to assist the child to develop the concepts and skills needed to realize their full potential. For more information, see the Blind Children’s Vocational Discovery and Development Program.

Break-Even Analysis

A determination of how many sales should be made before the cost of the business is paid.  The relationship can also be reported in terms of how long (in months) a business should operate before paying off its debts and thereby showing a profit. (Business Dictionary, s.v. “Break-Even Analysis”, accessed July 25,2017, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/breakeven-analysis.html).

Benefits Planning Query Handbook – Social Security, s.v. “Benefits Planning Query”, accessed June 15, 2017, https://www.ssa.gov/…/documents/BPQY_Handbook_Version%205.2_7.19.2012.pdf


Amount of funding that can be expended over a specified period, also known as funds that are allocated. In ReHabWorks, the term usually refers to an overall (agency-wide) budget but may refer to a directorate, unit budget and/or caseload budget (a component of the agency-wide budget).

Budget Levels

Tiered structure for distributing funds from the state level to budget managers to the caseload level.

Budget Managers

Agency staff responsible for developing, allocating, and distributing funds from the division budget through the caseload/case level; responsible for expending and monitoring budgets.

Budget Type

Program category that defines the purpose of the funds. (may want to give some examples : VRS, Pre-ETS, OIB)

Bundled Employment Services

A package of services purchased from Employment Services Providers.  An example is Bundled Job Placement.

Business Account Manager

A designated VR staff person working with a specific business as the primary point of contact.

Business Enterprises of Texas (BET)

Business Enterprises of Texas (BET) serves people who are legally blind by training them for careers managing food service facilities throughout Texas. Pursuant to Texas Labor Code §355.016, TWC is authorized to administer the Business Enterprises Program in accordance with the provisions of the Randolph-Sheppard Act (20 U.S.C. §107 et seq.).

Business Log

Description of all services VR has or will provided with specific businesses. It is in the Business Tracking Tool.

Business Plan

“A formal and detailed written description of a proposed business.”

The US Small Business Administration, s.v. “Business Plan”, accessed June 15, 2017, https://www.sba.gov/starting-business/write-your-business-plan

Business Relations Team

A team of regional and central office staff members who work with the business community through outreach, consultation, and technical assistance to assist with the recruitment and retention of qualified candidates.

Business Service Deliverables

Outreach, disability awareness, consultation, resource information, support, job placement and retention, and staff training and regional analysis provided VR Business Relations team and staff.

Business Tracking Tool

The Business Tracking Tool was developed using the Salesforce Platform in response to the Sunset recommendation to consolidate our business outreach activities and develop a tracking system to gauge effectiveness and quality of service.


Program or set of organized activities for students with disabilities.

Day Camp: A camp that is provided during the day outside of regular school hours; overnight accommodations are not included. See also “temporary learning experience”.

Residential Camp: A camp that is provided during the day outside of regular school hours; overnight accommodations are included. 

Caseload Carrying Staff (CCS)

VR personnel assigned a specific customer population. CCS is used interchangeably to represent both the staff assigned to a caseload and the caseload number throughout ReHabWorks.

Case Management

The first menu grouping in the left navigation of RehabWorks. Once in a customer’s case, it includes these menu selections: Case Actions, Case Note, Contacts, Appointment, PIN Assignment, Change SSN, Case Transfer, and Paper File Transfer.

Case Note

The primary record for documenting information such as a contact report or justification for a purchase that is entered as permanent part of the progress of the customers case and the purchasing decisions/actions of VR staff into ReHabWorks.

Case Note List

Permanent collection of all case notes for a case. The list gives the title of each note, the date it was entered, who entered it, and it also indicates whether it is a draft.

Cash-Flow Analysis

An examination of a company’s cash inflows and outflows during a specific period. The analysis begins with a starting balance and generates an ending balance after accounting for all cash receipts and paid expenses during the period. The cash flow analysis is often used for financial reporting purposes.

Business Dictionary, s.v. Cash-Flow Analysis, accessed July 27, 2017, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/cash-flow-analysis.html

Certified Professional

An individual with the knowledge, experience, and skills to perform a specific job. The individual’s expertise is verified by a certificate earned by passing an exam that is accredited by an organization or association that monitors and upholds prescribed standards for the profession involved. Examples of certified professionals include a certified brain injury specialist, certified nursing assistant, certified medical assistant, certified medication aide, and certified nurse aide.

Childhood Disability Benefits (CDB)

“SSA disability insurance program that provides a cash benefit to individuals who are 18 or older with a disability that began before the age of 22.”

Social Security Administration, s.v. “Childhood Disability Benefits”, accessed June 15, 2017, https://secure.ssa.gov/poms.nsf/lnx/0300203080

Circle of Support

A strategy used to help customers achieve their objectives in the person-centered planning process. Members of a Circle of Support group may include a customer’s friends, relatives, teachers, church members, and others who want to help the customer succeed.

Social Security Administration, s.v. “Circle of Support”, accessed June 15, 2017, https://secure.ssa.gov/poms.nsf/lnx/0410115001

Clear and Convincing Evidence

VR has a high degree of certainty before it can conclude that an individual is incapable of benefiting from services resulting in an employment outcome. “The clear and convincing standard constitutes the highest standard used in our civil system of law and is to be individually applied on a case-by-case basis. The term clear means unequivocal. For example, the use of an intelligence test result alone would not constitute clear and convincing evidence. Clear and convincing evidence might include a description of assessments, including situational assessments and supported employment assessments, from service providers who have concluded that they would be unable to meet the individual’s needs due to the severity of the individual’s disability.”  [34 CFR §361.42(e)]

Client Assistance Program (CAP)

Program that advises and informs customers and other individuals with disabilities of all the available services and benefits under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, and of the services and benefits available to them under Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).  A CAP agency may provide assistance and advocacy with respect to services that are directly related to employment for the customer.

Client Assistance Program (CAP), s.v. “Client Assistance Program”, accessed June 15, 2017, https://www.benefits.gov/benefits/benefit-details/914

Closed Phases

The stages of a case life cycle that are not open. These include the following stages:

  • Closure before Case Assignment
  • Closure before Application
  • Closure after Application
  • Successful Closure
  • Unsuccessful Closure after Plan Initiated
  • Unsuccessful Closure before Plan Initiated
  • Post-employment/exit Completed

Cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT)

A type of therapy that helps an individual to learn or relearn cognitive skills that have been lost or diminished due to a traumatic brain injury. CRT services enable the individual to compensate for lost cognitive functions. Services comprise reinforcing, strengthening, reestablishing previously learned patterns of behavior, and/or establishing new patterns of cognitive activity or compensatory mechanisms for impaired neurological systems.

Communication Services

Services that enable customers with communication impairments to better communicate; such as interpreter services, training in using communication equipment, braille instruction, and reading services.

Community rehabilitation program (CRP)

“A program that provides directly, or facilitates the provision of, one or more of the following vocational rehabilitation services to enable individuals who have disabilities to maximize their opportunities for employment, including:

  • career advancement;
  • medical, psychiatric, psychological, social, and vocational services that are provided under one management;
  • testing, fitting, or training in the use of prosthetic and orthotic devices;
  • recreational therapy;
  • physical and occupational therapy;
  • speech, language, and hearing therapy;
  • psychiatric, psychological, and social services, including positive behavior management;
  • assessment for determining eligibility and vocational rehabilitation needs;
  • rehabilitation technology;
  • job development, placement, and retention services;
  • evaluation or control of specific disabilities;
  • orientation and mobility services for individuals who are blind;
  • extended employment;
  • psychosocial rehabilitation services;
  • supported employment services and extended services;
  • services to family members if necessary to enable the applicant or eligible individual to achieve an employment outcome; and
  • personal assistance services.” (34 CFR §361.5)

Community Work Incentive Coordinator (CWIC)

“Employee of a Work Incentive Planning and Assistance (WIPA) Program funded through a grant from the Social Security Administration whose duties include provision of general information and referral, in-depth analysis of all publicly funded benefits, and recommendations for use of federal and state work incentive programs.”  (For more information, see SSA Work Incentives Planning and Assistance.)

Social Security Administration, s.v. “Community Work Incentive Coordinator”, accessed June 15, 2017, https://www.ssa.gov/work/WIPA.html

Comparable services and benefits

“Services and benefits, including accommodations and auxiliary aids and services, that are –

(A)  Provided or paid for, in whole or in part, by other Federal, State, or local public agencies, by health insurance, or by employee benefits;

(B)  Available to the individual at the time needed to ensure the progress of the individual toward achieving the employment outcome in the individual’s individualized plan for employment in accordance with §361.53; and

(C)  Commensurate to the services that the individual would otherwise receive from the designated State vocational rehabilitation agency.

(ii)  For the purposes of this definition, comparable services and benefits do not include awards and scholarships based on merit.”

–34 CFR §361.5(c)(8).

Competitive Bid

The process of inviting and obtaining bids from competing sources in response to advertised competitive specifications, by which an award is made to the lowest and best bidder meeting the specifications.

Business Dictionary, s.v. “Competitive Bid”, accessed June 15, 2017, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/competitive-bidding.html

Competitive integrated employment

“Means work that is performed on a full-time or part-time basis (including self-employment) and for which an individual is compensated at a rate that-

(A) Is not less than the higher of the rate specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 206(a)(1)) or the rate required under the applicable State or local minimum wage law for the place of employment;

(B) Is not less than the customary rate paid by the employer for the same or similar work performed by other employees who are not individuals with disabilities and who are similarly situated in similar occupations by the same employer and who have similar training, experience, and skills; and

(C) In the case of an individual who is self-employed, yields an income that is comparable to the income received by other individuals who are not individuals with disabilities and who are self-employed in similar occupations or on similar tasks and who have similar training, experience, and skills; and

(D) Is eligible for the level of benefits provided to other employees; and

Is at a location—

(A) Typically found in the community; and

(B) Where the employee with a disability interacts for the purpose of performing the duties of the position with other employees within the particular work unit and the entire work site, and, as appropriate to the work performed, other persons (e.g., customers and vendors), who are not individuals with disabilities (not including supervisory personnel or individuals who are providing services to such employee) to the same extent that employees who are not individuals with disabilities and who are in comparable positions interact with these persons; and

Presents, as appropriate, opportunities for advancement that are similar to those for other employees who are not individuals with disabilities and who have similar positions.” [34 CFR §361.5(c) (9)]

Completion Date

Date an action item has been completed.


Adhering to the federal and state laws; regulations, TWC policy, guidelines, and specifications that are outlined in this manual, the Business Procedures Manual (BPM), Standards Manual for Customer Services Contract Providers (SMCSCP), GMS, and TWC rules in the TAC.

Compliance and Quality Review (C&Q)

A review of the compliance and quality aspects of a vocational rehabilitation case. C&Q reviews can be completed using an entire or partial approach. Refer to the TxROCS User’s Guide for instructions on entering a C&Q review in TxROCS.

Confidential Information

Privileged communication shared with only a few individuals for furthering certain purposes, such as with an attorney for a legal matter, or with a doctor for treatment of a disease.

TWC, s.v. “Confidential Information” accessed June 15, 2017, http://www.twc.state.tx.us/news/efte/confidentiality.html

Conflict of Interest

A situation that creates a risk that professional judgment or actions will be unduly influenced by a personal interest or relationship and creates substantial conflicts with the proper discharge of duties required by this contract and the public interest.

TWC, s.v. “Conflict of Interest” accessed June 15, 2017, http://www.twc.state.tx.us/news/efte/confidentiality.html


Consumable items are those that are typically used up and then replaced. Examples of consumable office supplies include paper, pens, file folders, post-it notes, and toner or ink cartridges.

Comprehensive Vocational Evaluation System (CVES)

The Comprehensive Vocational Evaluation System (CVES) is the only test battery designed and standardized for a person who is blind or has significant visual impairment. The CVES is a neuropsychological, psychological, or vocational assessment depending on the qualifications of the person administering and interpreting it.


A contract is a legally binding document issued by TWC that includes all terms and conditions and is signed by both TWC and the Contractor.


“An amount required to pay as share of the cost for a medical service, durable medical good or supply, like a doctor’s visit, hospital outpatient visit, wheelchair, or prescription drug. A copayment is usually a set amount, rather than a percentage. For example, a customer might pay $10 or $20 for a doctor’s visit or prescription drug. This can also be referred to as “coinsurance.”

Medicare.gov, s.v. “Copayment” accessed June 15, 2017, https://www.medicare.gov/glossary/c.html

Core Services (PABI)

A set of specialized services that can be provided for the rehabilitation of individuals who have a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Specific core services are based on assessed individualized needs.

Courtesy Case

Customer’s case that is used by other VR staff to review and or coordinate specific services for a customer.

Create Date

The initial date that a Service Authorization (SA) is saved to draft or non-draft status; this value cannot be changed. This is the system date that records when the SA is first entered into the database, regardless of draft status.


Proof and/or certification that a third party has evaluated an individual’s professional knowledge, skills, competency, and ethics to determine whether he or she has the competency needed to perform specific tasks and functions.

Criss Cole Rehabilitation Center (CCRC)

A comprehensive vocational rehabilitation training facility for blind and visually impaired customers operated by the Texas Workforce Commission. CCRC staff works in partnership with customers and staff toward the accomplishment of employment and independent living goals. CCRC provides nonvisual evaluation, and training services in a residential/community setting.

Current Procedural Terminology (CPT)

A copyrighted coding system consisting of descriptions of medical procedures and with five-digit codes assigned to each. Within VR, these are also referred to as “MAPS codes” or maximum affordable price schedule.

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, s.v. “Current Procedural Terminology” accessed June 19, 2017, https://www.cms.gov/medicare-coverage

Customer Demographic Data

Specific information about a customer that is shared across cases such as name, address, phone numbers, date of birth, Social Security number, and personal identification numbers (PINs). Changing this information in one case updates it in all cases that pertain to that customer.

Customer Representative

An individual who is designated by the customer to act on behalf of the customer or appointed by a court to act on the customer’s behalf.

Customized Employment

“Competitive integrated employment, for an individual with a significant disability, that is-

(i) Based on an individualized determination of the unique strengths, needs, and interests of the individual with a significant disability;

(ii) Designed to meet the specific abilities of the individual with a significant disability and the business needs of the employer; and

(iii) Carried out through flexible strategies, such as—

(A) Job exploration by the individual; and

(B) Working with an employer to facilitate placement, including—

(1) Customizing a job description based on current employer needs or on previously unidentified and unmet employer needs;

(2) Developing a set of job duties, a work schedule and job arrangement, and specifics of supervision (including performance evaluation and review), and determining a job location;

(3) Using a professional representative chosen by the individual, or if elected self-representation, to work with an employer to facilitate placement; and

(4) Providing services and supports at the job location.”

-34 CFR §361.5(c) (11).

Customizing Specifications

Adding or changing details of a purchase description when creating a specific service record.

Data Warehouse

Storage of transaction history used for management information, end-of-day reports, or ad hoc queries.


By contractual agreement, a set dollar amount, usually established and revised annually, that is needed of policyholders/program participants to be paid to a service provider before a carrier will pay toward covered services. Once a deductible is met during a benefit period, a carrier pays on covered services per its policy.

Healthcare.Gov, s.v. “Deductible”, accessed June 19, 2017, https://www.healthcare.gov/glossary/deductible/

Delegated Action

A request entered into RHW and assigned to a specific individual to perform a task.

Designated State Unit (DSU)

“The State vocational rehabilitation bureau, division, or other organizational unit that is primarily concerned with vocational rehabilitation or vocational and other rehabilitation of individuals with disabilities and that is responsible for the administration of the vocational rehabilitation program of the State agency, as required under §361.13(b); or

The State agency that is primarily concerned with vocational rehabilitation or vocational and other rehabilitation of individuals with disabilities.”

–34 CFR §361.5(c) (13).

Diagnosis and Treatment of Impairments

The diagnosis and treatment of impairments include the following:

  • Corrective surgery or therapeutic treatment that is likely, within a reasonable period of time, to correct or modify substantially a physical or mental impairment that constitutes a substantial impediment to employment
  • Diagnosis and treatment for mental and emotional disorders by qualified personnel who meet state licensure laws
  • Dentistry
  • Nursing services
  • Necessary hospitalization (either inpatient or outpatient care) in connection with surgery or treatment
  • Drugs and supplies
  • Prescription of prosthetics and/or orthotics related to the individual’s diagnosed disability and necessary for the achievement of the employment outcome
  • Prescription of eyeglasses and visual services, including visual training, related to the individual’s diagnosed disability and necessary for the achievement of the employment outcome
  • Podiatry
  • Physical therapy
  • Occupational therapy
  • Speech or hearing therapy
  • Mental health services
  • Treatment of either acute or chronic medical complications and emergencies that are associated with, or result from, the provision of physical and mental restoration services or that are inherent in the condition under treatment
  • Special services for the treatment of individuals with end-stage renal disease, including transplantation, dialysis, artificial kidneys, and supplies
  • Other medical or medically related rehabilitation services
  • Medical care for acute conditions that arise during rehabilitation and constitute a barrier to the achievement of an employment outcome

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

The standard classification resource of mental disorders used by mental health professionals in the United States. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the current edition as of 7/1/2017.

Diabetes Education

“Ongoing process of facilitating and supporting informed decision making, self-care behaviors, problem solving, and active collaboration with the health care team and to improve clinical outcomes, health status, and quality of life for individuals with diabetes”.

American Association of Diabetes Educators, s.v. “Diabetes Education”, accessed June 19, 2017, https://www.diabeteseducator.org/home

Direct Time or Services

Time spent in person with the customer while providing a specific service.

Director (CRP)

An individual appointed by the legally authorized representative of the entity to be the primary contact for routine TWC communication and be responsible for meeting all Standards for Providers and contract requirements.


An organizational level below the VR Division and above the Field Headquarters.

Disability Determination Services (DDS)

SSA program, that conducts disability determinations and medical continuing disability reviews for SSI/SSDI recipients.

Social Security Administration, s.v. “Disability Determination Services”, accessed June 19, 2017, https://www.ssa.gov/disability/determination.htm

Disability Related Skills Training

Augmentative skills training includes, but is not limited to:

  • orientation and mobility;
  • rehabilitation teaching;
  • training in the use of low-vision aids;
  • Braille;
  • speech reading;
  • sign language; and
  • cognitive training/retraining.

Disaster Victim

A flag that indicates whether the applicant or customer is in Texas because he or she is a disaster victim (for example, undergoing extreme hardship because of a natural disaster) and will qualify for special funding, if available.

Dislocated Worker

A dislocated worker is an “individual who received services under section 133(b)(2)(B) of WIOA as a person who:

  • (A)(i) has been terminated or laid off, or who has received a notice of termination or layoff, from employment; (ii)(I) is eligible for or has exhausted entitlement to unemployment compensation; or (II) has been employed for a duration sufficient to demonstrate, to the appropriate entity at a one-stop center referred to in section 121(e), attachment to the workforce, but is not eligible for unemployment compensation due to insufficient earnings or having performed services for an employer that were not covered under a State unemployment compensation law; and (iii) is unlikely to return to a previous industry or occupation;
  • (B)(i) has been terminated or laid off, or has received a notice of termination or layoff, from employment as a result of any permanent closure of, or any substantial layoff at, a plant, facility, or enterprise; (ii) is employed at a facility at which the employer has made a general announcement that such facility will close within 180 days; or (iii) for purposes of eligibility to receive services other than training services described in section 134(c)(3) of WIOA, career services described in section 134(c)(2)(A)(xii) of WIOA, or supportive services, is employed at a facility at which the employer has made a general announcement that such facility will close;
  • (C) was self-employed (including employment as a farmer, a rancher, or a fisherman) but is unemployed as a result of general economic conditions in the community in which the individual resides or because of natural disasters;
  • (D) is a displaced homemaker; or
  • (E)(i) is the spouse of a member of the Armed Forces on active duty (as defined in section 101(d)(1) of title 10, United States Code), and who has experienced a loss of employment as a direct result of relocation.”

Distribution of Funds

Moving allocated monies from one level to another, such as from Field Headquarters to Caseload or between unallocated funds and requisitioned funds. See also “Allocation of Funds.”

Document Number

The system generated number that ReHabWorks assigns to a service authorization (SA) when it is generated, sometimes called a SA number.

Due Date

Date an action item is due, distinguished from “reminder date.” For example, when an application is signed, eligibility is due within 60 days for VR. The due date is sixty days from the application date.

Durable Medical Equipment and Supplies

Equipment and supplies that provides therapeutic benefits to an individual whose medical conditions require the equipment and supplies to meet their vocational goals.

Blue Cross Blue Shield, s.v. “Durable Medical Equipment and Supplies”, accessed June 19, 2017, https://www.bcbsnc.com/assets/services/public/pdfs/medicalpolicy/durable_medical_equipment_(dme).pdf

Education Service Centers

“Regional centers that provide leadership, training, and technical assistance in the area of special education for students with disabilities; serve as the first point of contact for school districts, parents, and other community stakeholders; provide for the joint training of parents and special education, related services, and general education personnel.” [34 CFR §300.382(j)]

Electronic Case File

Database record that documents the process and contains all the information collected and the documents generated throughout the vocational rehabilitation process for an invidiual customer by TWC staff, such as the Initial Contact, Application, Case Notes, and Plans phases.

Electronic Signature

Signature required on electronic documents and entered via the individuals selected personal identification number (PIN); for example, a signature on an application or plan.

Employment Assistance Specialist (EAS)

Specialized VR staff that works in partnership with employers and the VR team to provide the supports to meet the blind and visually impaired customer’s assistive technology needs to reach their employment outcomes.

Employment Data Sheet

A way of organizing all the information that will be needed to fully complete an application form and résumé. Personal data sheets include such information as name, addresses, phone numbers, identification numbers, education history, work history, volunteer history, and references.

Employment Outcome

“Means, with respect to an individual, entering, advancing in, or retaining full-time or, if appropriate, part-time competitive integrated employment, as defined in paragraph (c)(9) of this section (including customized employment, self-employment, telecommuting, or business ownership), or supported employment as defined in paragraph (c)(53) of this section, that is consistent with an individual’s unique strengths, resources, priorities, concerns, abilities, capabilities, interests, and informed choice.” [34 CFR 361.5(c) (15)]

Employment Network (EN)

Public or private entities that enter into an agreement with the Social Security Administration to provide employment, vocational, or other support services and help ticketholders (customers) obtain and maintain employment; an EN can also be a provider of job placement and/or supported employment services under contract with VR.

Social Security Administration, s.v. “Employment Network”, accessed June 19, 2017, https://www.ssa.gov/pubs

Employment Network (EN) Employment Advancement Payments

Payments to those VR CRPs who are also under contract with the SSA as an Employment Network and who partner with VR in an effort to ensure that VR customers participating in the SSA’s Ticket to Work program receive job retention services and other types of services that advance employment or increase earnings after the customer’s VR case is closed.

Social Security Administration, s.v. “Employment Network (EN) Employment Advancement Payments” accessed June 19, 2017, https://www.ssa.gov/pubs

Employment Services Provider (ESP)

A provider that has a contract with VR to provide work-oriented services to customers. Employment Services Provider was previously referred to as a Community Rehabilitation Program (CRP).

Employment Supports for Brain Injury (ESBI)

Services that are provided as recommended by an interdisciplinary team to address deficits in functional and cognitive skills based on individualized assessed needs. Services may include behavior management, the development of coping skills, and compensatory strategies. The purpose of these services is to help the customer find competitive integrated employment in the community. Services are provided in a community or residential setting.

English Language Learner

A person who has limited ability in speaking, reading, writing or understanding the English language and also meets at least one of the following two conditions (a) his or her native language is a language other than English, or (b) he or she lives in a family or community environment where a language other than English is the dominant language. These individuals may also be referred to individuals who have “Limited English Proficiency (LEP) or English as a Second Language (ESL) or English Language Learners (ELL). For vocational rehabilitation, we will use the term “English Language Learner”.

Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA) Policy Directive 16-04; June 14, 2017.

End Date

Date that the service is expected to be completed or that the final delivery of a good is expected; when referring to contracts, the end date is the last date on which contracted goods or services can be purchased from the contracted vendor.

Enrollment Process

Process by which TWC-VR awards contracts for the same or similar goods or services to all entities that meet qualifications established by TWC-VR.

Entity (Contracting)

The business requesting or that has been granted a contract with TWC-VR to provide services on behalf of VR customers. Also, referred to as provider.

Environmental Work Assessment (EWA)

A diagnostic tool used for assessing and planning the most appropriate work environment for a customer. The EWA focuses on the customer’s responses to the variables in a work environment rather than on how the customer performs the job.

University of North Texas, s.v. “Environmental Work Assessment”, accessed June 20, 2017, https://wise.unt.edu/content/environmental-work-assessment-ewa


The technology of designing equipment so it can be operated in the most effective and error free manner by the intended user.

Explanation of Benefits (EOB)

The statement provided by a third-party payer when payment or reimbursement for a performed service is authorized or denied; the EOB include specific details about services and rates that were reimbursed by the third party.

Medical Billing and Coding, s.v. “Explanation of Benefits”, accessed June 20, 2017, http://www.medicalbillingandcodingu.org/what-is-an-eob/.


The illegal or improper act or process of using the resources of a minor child, an adult with a disability, or an individual 65 years of age or older for monetary or personal benefit, profit, or gain as defined in Texas Family Code Chapter 261 and Texas Human Resources Code Chapter 48.

Extended Services

“Ongoing support services and other appropriate services that are—

(i) Needed to support and maintain an individual with a most significant disability including a youth with a most significant disability, in supported employment;

(ii) Organized or made available, singly or in combination, in such a way as to assist an eligible individual in maintaining supported employment;

(iii) Based on the needs of an eligible individual, as specified in an individualized plan for employment;

(iv) Provided by a State agency, a private nonprofit organization, employer, or any other appropriate resource, after an individual has made the transition from support from the designated State unit; and

(v) Provided to a youth with a most significant disability by the designated State unit in accordance with requirements set forth in this part and part 363 for a period not to exceed four years, or at such time that a youth reaches age 25 and no longer meets the definition of a youth with a disability under paragraph (c) (58) of this section, whichever occurs first. The designated State unit may not provide extended services to an individual with a most significant disability who is not a youth with a most significant disability.” [34 CFR §361.5(c) (19)]

Extension Activities

Activities a trainer can use to continue and/or reinforce topics and skills learned in the core activities within a service.  Examples include field trips, guest speakers, videos, and any other resources that continue the development of skills and knowledge related to the curriculum.

Felsted, s.v. “Extension Activities”, accessed June 20, 2017, http://www.felsted.org/academicextensionactivities

Facility Fee

An overhead charge applied to each patient’s bill to help offset the costs to operate the medical facility.

Texas Department of Insurance, s.v. “Facility Fee”, accessed June 20, 2017, http://www.tdi.texas.gov/wc/rules/adopted/documents/aorderhfg0108.pdf


Occurs when the job skills trainer gradually withdraws a prompt, (the act of helping a behavior to occur) until it is no longer needed.

Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)

The FLSA establishes minimum wage, overtime pay, recordkeeping, and youth employment standards affecting employees in the private sector and in federal, state, and local governments. FLSA is administered by the Employment Standards Administration’s Wage and Hour Division within the U.S. Department of Labor.

U.S. Department of Labor, s.v. “Fair Labor Standards Act”, accessed July 14, 2017, https://www.dol.gov/whd/flsa/

Fee Schedule

A schedule of fees VR will pay for services provided.

Field Headquarters

The organizational level also known as management.

Financial Projections

A forecast of future revenues and expenses for a business, organization, or country. A financial projection will typically take into account both internal information such as historical income and cost data, and estimates of the development of external market factors, providing estimated figures in addition to projections of the general financial condition of the company in the future.

Business Dictionary, s.v. “Financial Projections”, accessed July 27, 2017, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/financial-projection.html

Fiscal Year

Federal Fiscal Year (FFY): The 12 months beginning October 1 and ending September 30.

State Fiscal Year (SFY): The 12 months beginning September 1 and ending August 31.

United States Senate, s.v. “Fiscal Year”, accessed July 14, 2017, https://www.senate.gov/reference/glossary_term/fiscal_year.htm

Four-Year College or University Training

Full-time or part-time academic training leading to a baccalaureate degree, certificate, or other recognized educational credential. Such training may be provided by a four-year college or university or technical college.

Free on Board (FOB) Destination

A designation applied to the delivery of goods whereby the receiver does not own the goods until they arrive at their destination.

Global Period

A set period during which pre-operative, surgical, and routine post-operative services are included in a single payment to the surgeon.

Medical Billing and Coding, s.v. “Global Period”, accessed July 14, 2017, http://www.medicalbillingandcodingu.org/billing-the-global-surgical-package/

Graduate College or University Training

Full-time or part-time academic training leading to a degree recognized as being beyond a baccalaureate degree, such as a Master of Science (MS), Master of Arts (MA), Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), or Doctor of Jurisprudence (JD). Such training is provided by a college or university.

Hard Skills

Professional knowledge, tools, or techniques that allow an individual to perform the functions of a job.

Business Dictionary, s.v. “Hard Skills”, accessed July 14, 2017, www.businessdictionary.com/definition/hard-skills.html

Headquarters (Provider)

The location where a provider stores customer records and performs administrative responsibilities.

Health Care Facility

A facility that provides inpatient or outpatient medical services to customers.

Medline Plus, s.v. “Health Care Facility”, accessed July 14, 2017 https://medlineplus.gov/healthfacilities.html

Home Modification

The use of assistive or adaptive equipment or devices that may be installed in an individual’s home to enable him or her to perform ADL’s.

Host Business

An employer that participates in and is a member of the Project SEARCH team.

Project SEARCH, s.v. “Host Business”, accessed July 14, 2017, http://www.projectsearch.us/GetINVOLVED/BecomeaPartner.aspx

Independent Living Plan (ILP)

A written plan in which the consumer and service provider have collaboratively identified the services for older individuals who are blind that are needed to achieve the consumer’s goal of living independently. [40 TAC 854.112(19)]

Indirect Services

Services such as communication with the customer’s employer, that are provided when the customer is not physically present. Time billed for indirect services is referred to as indirect time.

Individualized Education Program (IEP)

A written statement for each child with a disability that is developed, reviewed, and revised in a meeting in accordance with 34 CFR §§ 300.320 through 300.324.”  (34 CFR 300.320)

Independent Living Skills Training

Training in techniques that enable a customer to perform daily living skills in alternative ways. These skills are divided into four categories: personal management, home management, communication, and information access and technology.

Department of Health, s.v.” Independent Living Skills Training” accessed July 14, 2017, www.health.ny.gov/facilities/long_term_care/waiver/nhtd_manual/

Individualized Plan for Employment (IPE)

A plan for employment that must be designed to achieve a specific employment outcome, as defined in 34 CFR §361.5(c) (15), that is selected by the individual consistent with the individual’s unique strengths, resources, priorities, concerns, abilities, capabilities, interests, and informed choice. (34 CFR 361.45)

Information and Referral Services

The provision of information about available services as well as referrals to other agencies or resources. (34 CFR 361.37)

Informational Interview

A meeting in which job seekers gain information about careers, a specific industry, and the corporate culture of a business regardless of whether or not a position is currently available; job offers are not expected as a result of an informational interview.

Northeastern University, s.v. “Informational Interview”, accessed July 14, 2017, https://www.northeastern.edu/careers/jobs-internships/networking-informational-interviewing/informational-interviewing/

Informed Choice

Information and assistance in the selection of vocational rehabilitation services and service providers that are needed to achieve the individual’s employment outcome. [34 CFR §361.52(c)]

In-house Providers

TWC staff member that is not a member of the caseload carrying staff (CCS) and that provides direct services to customers at the request of the CCS, such as training by a VR vocational rehabilitation teacher, the Criss Cole Rehabilitation Center (CCRC), the Assistive Technology Unit (ATU), or a vocational evaluation by a Vocational Diagnostic Unit staff member.

Integrated Work Settings

A work setting where customers with disabilities interact regularly with nondisabled employees and/or with the public. [34 CFR §361.5(c)(9)]

Interagency Transaction Voucher (ITV)

A request for payment from one state agency to another; the state comptroller transfers funds from one agency to another instead of issuing a warrant.

Fiscal Management, s.v.” Interagency Transaction Voucher”, accessed July 14, 2017, https://fmx.cpa.texas.gov/fmx/training/wbt/itv/displayall.php

Interdisciplinary team (IDT)

A team of professionals who coordinate services to achieve treatment goals to minimize an individual’s physical or cognitive disabilities and to maximize functional capacity.

Interpreter Service

An interpreter conveys messages between people without contributing to the dialogue. VR uses interpreter services to facilitate customer communication in the rehabilitation process. Interpreter services are provided by qualified personnel and include sign language and oral interpretation for persons who are deaf or hard of hearing and tactile interpretation for persons who are deaf-blind.

ICD-10 Codes

International Classification of Diseases (codes), 10th Revision, which uses five-character alpha-numeric codes used to classify the diagnoses of medical conditions.


A temporary position obtained by a student or trainee who works in a business, with or without pay, to gain work experience. For more information, see Internship and the Fair Labor Standards Act.

Interview Training

Instruction in the interview process and techniques that are used by businesses to select the most suitable candidates for their available positions.

Job Accommodation Network (JAN)

A resource for free, expert, and confidential guidance on workplace accommodations and disability employment issues. For more information, go to the JAN website

Job Analysis

The process of determining, by observation, interview, and study, the pertinent information relating to a specific job, including such factors as qualifications for employment, relation to other jobs, capacity and adjustability of the worker, equipment and materials used, education, training, and physical demands and environmental conditions data.

Business Dictionary, s.v. “Job Analysis”, accessed July 14, 2017, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/job-analysis.html

Job Development

For vocational rehabilitation, this means the process of developing a job opportunity that meets the needs of the customer and of the business that is interested in hiring the customer or maintaining the customer as an employee. (38 CFR 21.250)

Job Placement Specialist

An employee of the Employment Service Provider (CRP) who provides Job Placement Services to VR customers.

Job Readiness Training

Training provided to prepare an individual for the world of work (for example, appropriate work behaviors, getting to work on time, appropriate dress and grooming, and increasing productivity).

Job Ready

When the customer has the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed with or without supports, as appropriate, to begin seeking employment in his or her chosen career.

Job Search

The process of using traditional and nontraditional methods to look and apply for employment.

Business Dictionary, s.v. “Job Search”, accessed July 14, 2017, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/job-search.html

Job Search Assistance

Activities that support and assist an individual in searching for an appropriate job. Job search assistance may include help with preparing résumés, identifying appropriate job opportunities, developing interview skills, and making contacts with companies on behalf of the customer.

Job Sharing

A flexible work option in which two or more individuals share the responsibilities and tasks of a single position.

Business Dictionary, s.v. “Job Sharing”, accessed July 14, 2017, www.businessdictionary.com/definition/job-sharing.html

Job Skills Trainer

Job skills trainer provide one-on-one training to customers to assist them in learning and accurately carrying out job duties; services are tailored to meet the needs of the employee and the employer’s expectations.  They can also be referred to as job trainers.

Junior or Community College Training

Full-time or part-time academic training above the high school level and leading to an associate degree, certificate, or other recognized educational credential. Such training may be provided by a community college, junior college, or technical college.

Last Update Date

The date on which a service authorization (SA) was most recently changed. A draft or non-draft SA can be updated. This date indicates any change made to the SA after the date the SA was created, regardless of the status.

L Codes

Five-character Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) that uses alphanumeric codes assigned to durable medical equipment (including prosthetic components).

U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, s.v. “L Codes”, accessed July 14, 2017, https://www.cms.gov/site-search/search-results.html?q=l%20code

Legally Authorized Representative

For contracting purposes, this is an individual who is authorized to sign contracts and official documents that are legally binding on behalf of the entity.  For customers, this refers to a formal representative or legal guardian authorized to act on behalf of the customer.

Letter of Specification

A document provided by the contractor that includes a detailed description of the exact product to be provided, including the Manufacturer’s Suggested Retail Price (MSRP), cost of the product, service charge, and the date by which the product will be delivered. This is not a bid.


An individual that is assigned to work with a specific provider, community organization, or vendor. Liaison is the first point of contact when questions arise about working with VR and VR customers.

Licensed Professional

An individual who has completed a prescribed program of study in a specific field and who has obtained a license indicating his or her competence to practice in that field. Examples of licensed professionals include a registered nurse, physician, licensed professional counselor, certified rehabilitation counselor, and social worker.

Local Medical Consultant (LMC)

The contracted medical consultant assigned to the VR office or region to review cases and give guidance on the medical aspects of the customer’s disability including symptoms, functional limitations, typical treatment and diagnostic tests, prognosis, standards of care, value of second opinion, clarification of medical reports, and the appropriateness of the recommended treatment.

Long-term Supports and Services (LTSS)

Extended services and supports that are available through the Texas Department of Aging and Disability Services (DADS) or the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS).

Texas Department of Aging and Disability Services, s.v. “Long-term Supports and Services”, accessed July 14, 2017, https://www.dads.state.tx.us/providers/ltssportal/


Monetary support provided to an individual for expenses, such as food, shelter, and clothing, that are in excess of the normal expenses of the individual and that are necessitated by the individual’s participation in an assessment for determining eligibility and vocational rehabilitation needs or the individual’s receipt of vocational rehabilitation services under an individualized plan for employment [34 CFR Section 361.5(34)]

Maximum Affordable Payment Schedule (MAPS)

A copyrighted coding system consisting of descriptions of medical procedures and with five-digit codes assigned to each. Most MAPS codes are the same as the CPT code. (See CPT codes for more information.)


A private organization that contracts with the SSA to help manage the Ticket to Work program.

Social Security Administration, s.v. “MAXIMUS” ,accessed July 14, 2017, https://www.ssa.gov/foia/piadocuments/FY10/Ticket%20to%20Work%20Secure%20Provider%20Portal%20System.htm


The federally funded national health/hospitalization program for individuals who have limited income and assets; benefits are received based on need.

Medicaid, s.v. “Medicaid”, accessed July14, 2017, https://www.medicaid.gov/medicaid/index.html.

Medical Complication

An acute or chronic condition that results from the physical restoration service or is inherent in the condition under treatment.

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), s.v.” Medical Complication, accessed July 16, 2017, https://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Guidance/Transmittals/Downloads/R179BP.pdf

Medical Continuing Disability Review (MCDR)

SSA review that determines if SSI and/or SSDI eligibility will continue based on an evaluation of all evidence from the individual’s initial or last disability determination, and an evaluation of current evidence related to disability.

Social Security Administration, s.v. Medical Continuing Disability Review”, accessed July 16, 2017, https://www.ssa.gov/ssi/text-cdrs-ussi.htm

Medical Director

VR contracted medical consultant with statewide responsibility for approval of specific medical services, medical guidance for individual customer cases, consultation on development of VR physical restoration policy, and approval of payments for medical services that exceed MAPS.

Medical Service Coordinator (MSC)

VR staff member who coordinates customer services that are provided in a hospital, facility, or medical school setting.


National health care system into which most individuals contribute by payroll deduction. To be eligible for the medical benefits during retirement years or earlier by disability, payment by the worker (or parents, in the case of children) must have been paid into the system for an established minimum amount of time.

Social Security Administration, s.v.” Medicare”, accessed July 16, 2017, https://www.ssa.gov/medicare/

Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)

A written document that states the understanding or agreement of two or more parties about the subject matter of the agreement; also, referred to as a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA).

Mental Restoration Services

Limited or short-term psychiatric services—including treatment and psychotherapy for mental conditions that are stable or slowly progressive. [34 CFR §361.5 (b) (40)].

Miscellaneous Training

Any training, including General Educational Development (GED) or high school training, that leads to a diploma not listed in one of the other categories, or courses taken at four-year, junior, or community colleges that do not lead to a certificate or diploma.

Monitoring, OverSight, and Internal Controls (MOSAIC)

A TWC-VR system for monitoring, oversight, and internal controls processes. The quality assurance system and monitoring processes are applied to conduct case reviews in response to areas of highest risk and includes regional quarterly case review plans and action plans to address monitoring results.

Most Significant Disability

An individual with a disability who has a severe physical or mental impairment that seriously limits one or more functional capacities in terms of an employment outcome. Their vocational rehabilitation can be expected to require multiple vocational rehabilitation services over an extended period of time. [34 CFR §361.5 (30)]

Multi-customer Service Authorization

A service authorization (SA) that is created to buy goods or services for no specific customer (such as bus tickets) or for more than one customer (such as a camp) using one or more funding sources. If at the time of the receipt of the good or service a customer consumed the goods or services, the customer’s case is linked to that SA.

Multi-customer Service Record

A service record that is created for no specific customer (such as bus tickets) or more than one customer (such as a camp) using one budget category.

National Employment Team (NET)

National network of 80 public vocational rehabilitation programs that work together to provide a united approach to working with business customers.

Council of State Administrators of Vocational Rehabilitation, s.v. “National Employment Team”, accessed July 16, 2017, www.rehabnetwork.org/customers-2/business/

Natural Supports

Supports provided to a customer from supervisors and co-workers, such as mentoring, friendship, socializing at breaks or after work, providing feedback on job performance, or learning a new skill together. To help the customer keep his or her job, friends, family, or volunteers can also provide natural supports outside of the work site.


The failure of a customer or his or her caretaker to provide the goods or services— including medical services—necessary to avoid physical or emotional harm or pain of the customer. (Chapter 48, Human Resources Code and §98.1)

Negotiable Employment Conditions

Working conditions and preferences that the customer prefers in a job, but that are not needed for accepting a job offer.

Neuropsychological and Neuropsychiatric Assessment

A comprehensive battery of tests to evaluate neurocognitive, behavioral, and emotional strengths and weaknesses and their relationship to normal and abnormal central-nervous-system functioning.

US National Library of Medicine , National Institutes of Health, s.v. “Neuropsychological and Neuropsychiatric Assessment”, accessed July 16, 2017, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3341654/

Non-bundled Job Placement Services

Individual employment services that are purchased for the customer such as application training and completion and interview training.

Noncompetitive procurement process

A process in which competitive procurement process solicitation methods are not mandatory, typically involving a direct application or enrollment process.

National Association of State Procurement Officials, s.v. “Noncompetitive Procurement Process”, accessed July 16, 2017, www.naspo.org/SoleSourceProcurement/7-Question_Sole_Source_Procurement_brief

Noncompetitive Purchase

The purchase of goods or services that involves dealing directly with the vendor using an application or enrollment process, or a purchase totaling less than $5,000.


Non-consumable items are used repeatedly and for a long time. Examples of non-consumable items are computers, laptops, phones, power tools, and many of the assistive technology devices used by VR customers.

Nonnegotiable Employment Conditions

Conditions that a customer and counselor have indicated must or must not be present in an employment placement. The CRP must always ensure that these conditions are met when looking for an employment placement for the customer.

Occupational or Vocational Training

Occupational, vocational, or job skills training provided by a community college and/or business—or a vocational, trade, or technical school—to prepare students for gainful employment in a recognized occupation. This training, which does not lead to an academic degree, includes selected courses or programs of study at community colleges, four-year colleges, universities, technical colleges, or proprietary schools or programs.

Obligating Funds

The process by which program funds are committed through a service authorization to pay a provider for specific goods and/or services provided.

Occupational Information Network (O*NET)

A national source of occupational information. The O*NET database has information on hundreds of standardized and occupation-specific descriptors. For more information, go to http://www.onetonline.org/.

On-the-Job Supports—Short-Term Support

Services provided to an individual who has been placed in employment in order to stabilize the placement and enhance job retention. Such services include short-term job coaching for individuals who do not have a supported employment goal consistent with the employment goal on the IPE.

On-the-Job Supports—Supported Employment

Ongoing support services and other appropriate services needed to support and maintain an individual with a significant disability in supported employment for a period of time generally not to exceed 18 months. These services, such as job skills training, are for individuals whose IPEs include supported employment and long-term supports. On-the-job support services with a supported employment goal are funded using Title VI, Part B, and Title I funds.

On-the-Job Training

Training in specific job skills by a prospective employer. Generally, the trainee is paid during this training and will remain in the same or a similar job upon successful completion.

Open Phases

The stages of a case life cycle that are not closed, including the following stages:

  • Initial Contact without Case Assignment
  • Initial Contact with Case Assignment
  • Application
  • Eligibility and Plan Development
  • Active Services
  • Employment
  • Post-employment/exit


A medical doctor with extensive training who specializes in medical and surgical care of the eyes and visual system and in eye disease and injury prevention. Ophthalmologists are primary health care providers who perform eye examinations and prescribe treatment, including eyeglasses, contact lenses, and medications.

Texas Department of State Health Services, s.v. “Ophthalmologist”, accessed July 16, 2017, http://dshs.texas.gov/contactlens/cl_scope.shtm?terms=Ophthalmologist

Optical Low-Vision Devices

Devices are used when vision cannot be normalized through conventional glasses prescriptions. Previously referred to as low-vision aids.

US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, s.v.” Optical Low-Vision Devices”, accessed July 16, 2017, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1705708/


A health care provider that fills prescriptions for eyeglasses and contact lenses and dispenses eyeglasses and contact lenses to customers upon written instructions from an ophthalmologist or optometrist.

Texas Department of State Health Services s.v.” Optician”, accessed July 16, 2017, http://dshs.texas.gov/contactlens/cl_scope.shtm?terms=Optician


A doctor of optometry trained to perform eye examinations, diagnose and treat certain disorders of the eyes, and prevent eye disease and injury. Optometrists are primary health care providers who prescribe eyeglasses and contact lenses.

Texas Department of State Health Services s.v.” Optometrist”, accessed July 16, 2017, http://dshs.texas.gov/contactlens/cl_scope.shtm?terms=Optometrist

Orientation and Mobility

Services to assist customers who are blind to travel independently with competence and confidence. O&M tools may include white canes, dog guides, and electronic travel aids.


A custom-fabricated or custom-fitted medical device designed to provide for the support, alignment, prevention, or correction of a neuromuscular or musculoskeletal disease, injury, or deformity.

Medical Dictionary, s.v. “Orthosis”, accessed July 17, 2017, http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/orthosis

Over-the-Counter Medication

Medication that can be obtained without a prescription.

Medline Plus, s.v. “Over-the-Counter Medication”, accessed July 17, 2017, http://medlineplus.gov


An individual to whom a particular aspect of a professional task is delegated, but who is not licensed as a fully qualified professional. A paraprofessional is qualified—through experience, training, or a combination thereof—to provide services. Paraprofessionals must have, at a minimum, a high school diploma or its equivalent.

Oxford Dictionaries, s.v. “Paraprofessional”, accessed July 17, 2017, https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/paraprofessional


The individual or entity who receives payment from VR for goods or services.

Oxford Dictionaries, s.v.” Payee”, accessed July 17, 2017, https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/payee

Payment Authorized Date

The date a request for payment is recorded in ReHabWorks.

Payment Method

The process used to pay for a good or service. Payment method depends on whether there is a cost for a good or service. If it is arranged, such as complimentary equipment training offered by a vendor or provided, like internal training at CCRC, there is no cost. If it is purchased, there is a cost.

Oxford Dictionaries, s.v.” Payment Method’, accessed July 17, 2017, https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/payment

Payment Remit Address

A vendor’s billing or remittance address, distinguished from “physical or location address.” The warrant is mailed to this address.

Periodic Payment

An expenditure used when a service is provided and paid over a defined but recurring period, such as training programs that bill monthly.

Person-Centered Planning Process

A planning process that brings together all the people who are important to the individual; to identify the skills and abilities that can help the individual achieve his or her goals for competitive integrated employment, independent living, continuing education, and full inclusion in the community.

Personal Adjustment Training

Personal adjustment training focuses on the development of an individual’s capabilities to the optimal level of social, emotional, and vocational skills needed to function within the community and work settings.

Goodwill, s.v. ”Personal Adjustment Training”, accessed July 17, 2016, https://www.yourgoodwill.org/grow/training-services?subsection=Training

Personal Assistance Services

Services that are designed to assist an individual with a disability with on-the-job or related daily living activities that the individual typically would perform if he or she did not have a disability.  These can also be referred to as personal attendant care services.

Office of the Federal Register, s.v. “Personal Assistance Services”, accessed  July 17, 2017, https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2016/10/27/2016-25918/independent-living-services-and-centers-for-independent-living

Personal Identification Number (PIN)

A four-digit electronic signature used as a signature of authorization in ReHabWorks for the customer, the customer’s representative, or the customer’s parent or guardian.

Physical Address

The address of a vendor’s place of business, which may be different from the remittance (mailing or payment) address.

Physical Restoration Services

Medical services that correct or substantially modify, within a reasonable period of time, a physical condition that is stable or slowly progressive. [34 CFR §361.5(39)]

Placement Plan

Written document that outlines the job tasks, employment conditions, and customer-support needs agreed on by the customer, counselor, and (CRP). The placement plan is completed on the forms indicated in the Standards for Providers or in the service authorization.

Position Negotiation

Process of reaching an agreement on what job responsibilities will be performed or those that will not be performed for the business by the individual being hired.

Post-acute Brain Injury (PABI)

A brain injury at the post-acute stage, which is when the patient is medically stable and deemed ready to engage in intensive rehabilitation.

Post-acute Brain Injury (PABI) Services

Intensive rehabilitation residential or nonresidential services provided to individuals who have a post-acute brain injury; these services address deficits in functional and cognitive skills based on individualized assessed needs. Services may include behavior management, the development of coping skills, and compensatory strategies.

Postoperative Care

Medical care and recovery monitoring following surgery.

Merriam-Webster, s.v. “Postoperative Care”, accessed July 18, 2017, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/postoperativeessed


Staffing between the provider and the VR counselor that takes place after the completion of a service. The customer and the customer’s Circle of Supports may also participate in the post-staffing.

Pre-employment Transition Services (Pre-ETS)

Pre-employment transition services include: (i) Job exploration counseling;

(ii) work-based learning experiences; (iii) counseling on opportunities for enrollment in comprehensive transition or postsecondary educational programs at institutions of higher education; (iv) Workplace readiness training to develop social skills and independent living; and (v) Instruction in self-advocacy. [34 CFR §361.48(a)]


Staffing between the provider and the VR counselor that takes place before the service provision; the customer and the customer’s Circle of Supports may also participate in the pre-staffing.

Presumptive Eligibility

Any applicant who has been determined eligible for Social Security benefits under title II or title XVI of the Social Security Act is presumed eligible for vocational rehabilitation services. (34 CFR §361.42)

Professional Fee

The fee paid to a physician to interpret diagnostic medical services, such as laboratory, pathology, radiology, EEGs, and EKGs.

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, s.v. ”Professional Fee”, accessed July 18, 2017, https://www.cms.gov/Outreach-and-Education/Medicare-Learning-Network-MLN/MLNProducts/downloads/TelehealthSrvcsfctsht.pdf

Program Year

The period that begins on July 1 of a calendar year and ends on June 30 of the next calendar year.

United States Department of Labor, s.v. “Program Year”, accessed July 18, 2017, www.doleta.gov/Budget/buddict.cfm

Project SEARCH Job Placement Specialist

The CRP staff member who completes job development and job placement activities with each customer, so that the customer finds paid employment after the completion of internship rotations.

Project SEARCH, s.v. “Job Placement Specialist”, accessed July 18, 2017, http://www.projectsearch.us

Project SEARCH Model

A school-to-work program for customers with intellectual and developmental disabilities who are in their last year of high school eligibility. Project SEARCH is an international trademarked and copyrighted program model.

Project SEARCH, s.v. “Model”, accessed July 18, 2017, http://www.projectsearch.us

Project SEARCH Team

A support group for customers that include the host business, the school district, the state vocational rehabilitation staff, a community rehabilitation provider (known as the contractor), and disability-related organizations that provide long-term support for customers to maintain long-term competitive integrated employment at the conclusion of the internship.

Project SEARCH, s.v. “Team”, accessed July 18, 2017, http://www.projectsearch.us

Proprietary or Sole-Source Justification

The documentation and approval needed for circumstances in which :

  • a noncontract, non-MAPS purchase costs $5,000.00 or more; and
  • the product or service is available from only one vendor (sole source) or one manufacturer (proprietary) because of the good’s or service’s distinctive features or characteristics that are not available from competing companies, similar products, or comparable services.

Proprietary Purchase

A purchase characterized by only one product, service, or provider meeting specifications because of distinctive features or characteristics that are not available from competing companies, similar products, or comparable services.


A custom-fabricated or custom-fitted medical device used to replace a missing limb, appendage, or other external human body part but that is not surgically implanted

Merriam-Webster, s.v. “Prosthesis”, accessed July 18, 2017, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/prosthesis

Provided Good and or Service

A service that is delivered directly by a member of the VR staff; a good that is provided directly to the customer with no direct cost to the agency, such as a re-issued tool or textbook.


Any individual or business from which VR can obtain goods and services for customers. (See also Vendor.)

Merriam-Webster, s.v. “Provider”, accessed July 18, 2017, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/provider

Public Transportation

Any form of transit service available for use by the public that charges set fares.

Oxford Dictionaries, s.v. “Public Transportation”, accessed July 18, 2017, https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/

Purchased Good and or Service

A good or service that is acquired on behalf of a customer by using VR funds.

Reader Services

Reader services are for individuals who cannot read print because of blindness or another disability. Reader services include, in addition to reading aloud, transcription of printed information into Braille or sound recordings, if the individual requests such transcription.

Receive Date

The date a good was received or a service was completed. For more information, see the ReHabWorks Users Guide.

Report Receive Date

The date entered into ReHabWorks when a complete and accurate report and all mandatory forms or other documentation are received from the provider.

Invoice Receive Date

The date a complete and accurate invoice is date-stamped by the VR office named on the purchase order under the “Invoice To” section.  If the invoice has an error, the invoice date is the date the corrected invoice is received by the VR office.  This date is entered in the invoice date field in the electronic case management system.

Recurring Transaction Indicator (RTI) Number

The receiving agency’s Recurring Transaction Indicator (RTI) number, which is found on the invoice. The RTI number sends the payment electronically to the agency to be paid.

Regional Dental Consultant (RDC)

A contracted dentist that provides guidance to VR staff on customer dental issues to include an explanation of report findings, recommended dental restoration services, expected results with treatment, and the value of a second opinion. The RDC review is needed for all cast restoration, endodontic procedures, dental implants, and oral surgery.

Regional Business Relations

Outreach and Service Coordination Regional teams that assist the business relations coordinator in providing services to VR business and community partners.

Regional Program Support Specialist (RPSS)

The regional program support specialist is available to consult for any business venture as specified in the RPSS job description. and upon referral from the VRC. The RPSS conducts a full review of the business three to six months after it opens using the IPE, business plan, and other documentation in the case file to ensure that the objectives of the business plan are being met.

Regional Psychological Consultant (RPC)

A psychologist that provides guidance to VR staff on advice and guidance on the psychological aspects of the customer’s disability, and clarification of functional limitations. When appropriate, RPC will review of psychological testing and other data in the case record regarding reliability and validity of test results, functional limitations revealed, and recommended additional testing or other psychological services.

Rehabilitation Assistant (RA)

A VR staff member who provides technical support to a counselor, support the counselor in providing assistance to the customer, a contact for the customer and is often the point of contact when a provider has questions about issued service authorizations and invoicing.

Rehabilitation Technology

Rehabilitation technology is the systematic application of technologies, engineering methodologies, or scientific principles to meet the needs of, and address the barriers confronted by, individuals with disabilities in areas such as education, rehabilitation, employment, transportation, independent living, and recreation. Rehabilitation technology includes rehabilitation engineering services; assistive technology devices, including, but not limited to, hearing aids, low vision aids, and wheelchairs; and assistive technology services, including home and vehicular modification. See also 34 CFR 361.5(b)(45). Rehabilitation technology includes the following:

  1. Rehabilitation Engineering Services are the systematic application of engineering sciences to design, develop, test, evaluate, apply, and distribute technological solutions to problems confronted by VR individuals in functional areas such as mobility, communications, hearing, vision, and cognition, and in activities associated with employment, independent living, education, and integration into the community.
  2. Assistive Technology Devices include any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a VR customer.
  3. Assistive Technology Services are any services that directly assist an individual with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device. Services may include:
    1. evaluating the needs of an individual, including conducting a functional evaluation of the individual in his or her customary environment;
    2. purchasing, leasing, or otherwise providing for the acquisition by an individual of an assistive technology device;
    3. selecting, designing, fitting, customizing, adapting, applying, maintaining, repairing, or replacing assistive technology devices;
    4. coordinating and using other therapies, interventions, or services with assistive technology devices, such as those associated with existing education and rehabilitation plans and programs;
    5. training or providing technical assistance for an individual or, if appropriate, the family members, guardians, advocates, or authorized representatives of the individual; and
    6. training or providing technical assistance for professionals, including individuals providing education and rehabilitation services; employers; or others who provide services to, employ, or are otherwise substantially involved in the major life functions of, VR individuals to the extent that training or technical assistance is necessary for individuals to achieve an employment outcome.

Rehabilitation Technology Services

Services that provide or help customers obtain adaptive modifications, such as wheelchairs and lifts, that address the barriers confronted by individuals with significant disabilities, including barriers to education, rehabilitation, employment, transportation, independent living, or recreation.

ReHabWorks (RHW)

An electronic case management system used to manage cases from initial contact to post-employment. For more information about RHW, refer to the ReHabWorks Users Guide (RUG).

Requisition Budget

Funds available to spend on purchases; similar to a checking account.

Requisition Budget Balance

Requisition budget less total encumbrance; outstanding encumbrances not paid and total paid.

Restricted Donation Funds

A cash donation made to TWC to use for services to TWC customers. The donor can specify a purpose, program, TWC office, or caseload for which the funds are to be used. If the funds are accepted in accordance with the donor’s wishes, they may be used only for the stated purpose.

Restricted Donation

A cash donation made to VR to use for services to VR customers. The donor can specify a purpose, program, VR office, or caseload for which the funds are to be used. If the funds are accepted in accordance with the donor’s wishes, they may be used only for the stated purpose. The donation must be accepted by the commission in an open meeting.


A written compilation of education, work experience, credentials, and accomplishments that is used to apply for some jobs. Several types of résumés are used: chronological, functional, combination, or targeted.

Purdue Online Writing Lab, s.v. “Résumé”, accessed July 18, 2017, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/719/1/

Room and Board

Shelter, facilities, and food, including the customary and usual diets in residential settings.

Merriam-Webster, s.v. “Room and Board”, accessed July 18, 2017, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/room%20and%20board

Salary Negotiation

The process of reaching an agreement on what a business will pay the customer-employee for the skills, knowledge, and experience he or she offers to the business.

Secondary Insurance Coverage

A health/hospitalization policy that pays after a primary policy/program pays its maximum.

Business Dictionary, s.v. “Secondary Insurance Coverage, accessed July 18, 2017, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/secondary-coverage.html

Self-employment Training

A training class or seminar that provides an organized curriculum about establishing a small business and retaining self-employment. Classes may be available through the Small Business Administration (SBA) or local community colleges.

Separation of Duties

A policy that requires a minimum of two staff members to complete each customer purchase, one staff member to make the purchase and another to authorize payment. ReHabWorks does not allow the staff member who generated or changed an SA to also authorize payment on the same SA.

Service Arrays

A set of services provided to eligible individuals who have a post-acute brain injury. Services are based on assessed individualized rehabilitation needs.

Service Authorization (SA)

A service authorization is an official document that is generated in RHW to authorize the purchase of a good or services to meet the stated specifications in accordance with defined terms and conditions. When the service authorization is generated, VR funds are obligated from the caseload budget and services is only valid when it is open. Once it is closed, funds are returned to the VR budget and the service is no longer authorized.

Service Category Codes

In ReHabWorks, a drop-down list of service descriptions from which an entry is selected when creating a service record. The selected service category code helps determine the applicable receiving and payment requirements enforced by ReHabWorks and may be used by the system to determine whether a transaction can be paid in advance.   Proper selection of the service category code supports VR’s ability to ensure:

  • compliance with federal reporting obligations;
  • proper use of VR funds;
  • compliance with state comptroller requirements; and
  • proper categorization of goods & services for the SSA-VR reimbursement process.

Service Charge (Hearing Aids)

The usual and customary charge (not to exceed Maximum Affordable Payment Schedule that covers the initial fitting (including activation of a telecoil) and up to four follow-up visits. Follow-up visits must include any needed adjustments to the hearing aids, the post-fitting evaluation, and instructions in the care and use of the hearing aids.

Service Completion Date

The date the customer product is received, the date the customer service is completed (including receipt of the provider’s written report, if applicable), or the date the provider’s invoice is received, whichever is later.

Service Corp of Retired Executives (SCORE)

A group of individuals who have related experience and are available to review business plans and offer advice related to operating a small business. They are located in various communities throughout Texas. Locations are listed on the U.S. Small Business Administration website.

SCORE Association, s.v. “SCORE”, accessed July 18, 2017, www.score.org

Service Justification Case Note

A case note or series of case notes entered into ReHabWorks to authorize a service or good for a customer. The case note must include the type of service, goal of service, specific provider, begin and end dates of service, information about available comparable benefits, and information explaining how the customer exercised informed choice.

Service Provider (SP)

A term used to represent entities, either agencies or individuals, approved to provide services to individuals with disabilities served by VR. Sometimes interchanged with the term “provider.”

Service Record

A documented entry in RehabWorks that identifies the need for a good or service that will be part of a customer’s rehabilitation program, regardless of whether money will be spent. A service record includes a description of the good or service, the payment method, approval and service statuses, the vendor, and the anticipated beginning and ending dates and is required before generating a service authorization.

Situational Assessment

An assessment of the real job task(s), paid or nonpaid, that exist in an industry related to the customer’s identified interest.

Skills Trainer

Employees of a community rehabilitation provider (CRP). The skills trainer completes the Asset Discovery process, provides skills training during each internship rotation, and participates in all Project SEARCH team meetings.

Skills Training

Services provided by the contractor to help the customer achieve his or her vocational goals during the internship. The services include intervention techniques for customers who need to learn the essential soft and hard skills necessary to meet the expectations and production standards of the Project SEARCH host business.

Skills Training and Life Skills (IL) Training Services

Services that may include instruction in developing independent living skills in personal care, coping, financial management, social skills, and household management. These may also include education and training for living in the community and participating in community activities.

Small Business Administration (SBA)

An organization within the federal government that provides technical and management assistance to help start, run, and develop small businesses. The administration’s approval of a proposal can help to support a funding request. See more on the U.S. Small Business Administration website.

Small Business Development Center

A service established by the U.S. Small Business Administration to assist individuals operating a small business. Locations are in various communities throughout Texas and are listed on the U.S. Small Business Administration website.


An electronic copy of data collected or a report generated at a specific moment. Snapshots are useful for backing up data at intervals, which allows information to be recovered from the times when snapshots are made.

Social Security Administration (SSA)

The federal agency responsible for administering retirement benefits of workers who pay into the national system, for the benefits of the SSDI program, and for overseeing the SSI program, which is administered by the states.

Social Security Administration, s.v. “Social Security Administration”, accessed July 18, 2017, www.ssa.gov/planners/disability/dqualify4.html

Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI)

Disability insurance program that provides a monthly cash benefit to individuals with disabilities who qualify based on their earnings and time worked. SSDI also provides Medicare health insurance after a 24-month waiting period.

Social Security Administration, s.v. “Social Security Disability Insurance”, accessed July 18, 2017, https://www.ssa.gov/disability

Soft Skills

Behavioral competencies, also known as interpersonal skills or “people skills.” Soft skills are the skills, traits, work habits, and attitudes that all workers across all occupations need to obtain, maintain, and progress in employment.

Business Dictionary, s.v. “Soft Skills”, accessed July 19, 2017, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/soft-skill.html

Specialty Caseload

A caseload in which the majority (usually 50% or more) of the customers served have a specific primary disability. In general, a counselor with a specialty caseload typically receives all referrals for the office with that specific primary disability. There are other specialty caseloads in which the referrals with the specific disability may be smaller in number, thus not comprising 50% of the caseload; however, the counselor has developed skills and expertise in serving a specific population, such as customers with epilepsy or traumatic brain injuries.

Specification Customization

The process of adding detailed information to a level-four specification in ReHabWorks so the provider has a clear understanding of TWC expectations. See also Specification and Specification Levels.

Specification Levels

The descriptions and categories of goods or services used when creating a service record in ReHabWorks. The levels increase in detail from general (level one) to detailed (level four), allowing buyers to locate what they need to buy.

Specification Maintenance Group

A group of similar specifications in ReHabWorks from which staff can select one or more. A method of updating specifications.

Speed Chart Code

Codes that combines certain budget chartfield codes into one code in order to interface with the accounting system. Speed chart codes tie the funds, project or grant, class, and program chartfield codes to one speed chart code.

Spot Purchase

The purchase of good or service costing less than $5,000. Also known as small purchase or crop purchase.

Stability and Closure Analysis

An analysis of the profit and loss statement that determines when a customer’s business meets the “stability status” as agreed to in the Individualized Plan for Employment (IPE) and is required for case closure.

Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)

Codes are used by the federal government to classify occupations.

US Bureau of Labor Statistics, s.v.” Standard Occupational Classification”, accessed July 19, 2017, https://www.bls.gov/soc/

Standards for Providers Manual

Manual for VR providers that includes contract terms and conditions standards that ensure accountability and quality of services to VR customers.

Standing Self-Employment Committee (SSEC)

A committee consisting of the employment assistance services manager, assistive technology support specialist, regional program support specialist, and others. The committee reviews plan and renders an opinion.

State Ophthalmological Consultant

The eye care professional (M.D.) under contract with VR for services such as reviewing VR medical and surgery cases for determination of payment amounts and/or payment approvals when requested by MAPS for interpretation of eye-related and other medical reports, and a location for input to the division about medical services from doctors and other interested parties in the public- and private-sectors in communities across the state.

State Optometric Consultant

The eye care professional (non-M.D.) paid by VR for services such as reviewing VR cases for determination of payment amounts and/or payment approvals on optometric, low vision, and vision therapy cases when needed by MAPS, for interpretation of eye exam and low vision reports, and a location for input to the division about optometric, low vision, and vision therapy services from optometrists and other interested parties in the public and private sectors in communities across the state.


Means of tracking customer progress toward achieving the employment goal with specific names assigned to specific points in the process, such as application, eligibility, IPE, or closure. This is sometimes referred to as a “phase.”

Student with a Disability

An individual who is attending school in a recognized educational setting, which may include public schools, private schools, home schooling, post-secondary, or other recognized setting such as schooling provided by juvenile justice facilities.   In Texas, the definition of student with a disability is an individual 14-22 years of age enrolled in school who is receiving, or has received services through special education or is considered 504 eligible. [34 CFR §200.103 (c)]


An independent contractor performing services that can be controlled by the employer. For more information, see https://www.irs.gov/businesses/small-businesses-self-employed/independent-contractor-defined.

Substance Use Disorder Services

Planned services that are structured to help an individual abstain from using drugs and/or alcohol. Services include identifying and changing behavior patterns that are maladaptive, destructive, or injurious to health and that are related to or result from substance-related disorders and identifying and changing behavior patterns to restore appropriate levels of physical, psychological, and social functioning.

Substantial Gainful Activity (SGA)

Financial guideline used by SSA that is updated each year on January 1. See the current SGA amount.

Social Security Administration, s.v.” Substantial Gainful Activity”, accessed July 19, 2017, https://www.ssa.gov/oact/cola/sga.html

Substantial Service

A substantial service is any core VR service that contributes significantly to the customer’s successful employment outcome regardless of the amount of time, effort, or funds expended. Examples of substantial services include counseling and guidance, diagnosis and treatment of impairments, training, employment-related services and rehabilitation technology. For more information, see VRSM B-504-5: Planned Services.

Subject Matter Expert (SME)

Staff who has training in a specific subject and can provide guidance and information to other staff.

Supplemental Security Income (SSI)

Needs-based program that provides individuals with little or no income or resources with a cash benefit to assist with food and shelter. In Texas, individuals who are determined eligible for SSI receive Medicaid.

Social Security Administration, s.v. “Supplemental Security Income”, accessed July 19, 2017, https://www.ssa.gov/disabilityssi/ssi.html

Supported Employment

Service that is offered to customers with the most significant disabilities. Supported employment enables them to enter competitive integrated employment by providing individualized assistance in finding an appropriate job match and establishing extended services and long-term supports within the work environment. [34 CFR 361(b)]

Supported Employment Assessment (SEA)

An assessment completed by the supported employment specialist using person-centered techniques to conduct discovery interviews and interviews with individuals within the customer’s circle of supports, as well as observations of the customer in multiple settings to determine the customer’s specific needs for employment. The assessment includes informational interviews with potential employers, work-skills observations, and the identification of potential Extended Services needed for the customer to maintain long-term employment.

Supported Employment Specialist

The Employment Services provider employee who completes the Supported Employment Assessment, identifies jobs the customer can perform in the community, and coordinates the customer’s attainment of the job and job skills training to ensure that the customer learns the job and uses long-term supports to maintain long-term employment success. The supported employment specialist must maintain the University of North Texas Supported Employment Credential.

Supportive Goods and Services

Supportive goods and services are those that are necessary for a customer to participate in 1) assessments to determine eligibility for VR services and identify VR needs or 2) substantial VR services that are included in the IPE or the current IPE amendment. Supportive services are not defined by the cost, time, or effort involved, in the same way that we do substantial services. For more information, see VRSM C-1400: Supportive Goods and Services.

Targeted Impediments

Refers to barriers that are specific and that can be reduced within a relatively short period of time.

Targeted Job Tasks or Skills

Tasks or skills identified as part of the assessment and planning process of job placement, enhanced job placement, and supported employment that the customer has the ability and interest to perform.

Team-approach Matrix

A tool that includes applicable data to ensure success by individuals with severe multiple disabilities such as deaf-blindness.

Small Business, s.v. “Team-approach Matrix”, accessed July 19, 2017, http://smallbusiness.chron.com/disadvantages-organizations-matrix-approach

Technical Assistance Services

Technical assistance and other consultation services provided to conduct market analyses, develop business plans, and provide resources to individuals in the pursuit of self-employment, telecommuting, and small business operation outcomes.

Technical Fee

The fee paid for the technician to perform diagnostic medical services, such as laboratory, pathology, radiology fees, as well as EEGs and EKGs.

Accessed July 18, 2017, https://www.cms.gov/Outreach-and-Education/Medicare-Learning-Network-MLN/MLNProducts/downloads/TelehealthSrvcsfctsht.pdf

Temporary Learning Experience

Camps, seminars, conferences, classes, and other types of structured activities for students with disabilities, aged 14 to 22, that focus on providing opportunities for the student to gain knowledge, skills, and abilities related to improving work readiness and/or the development of work-related interests and goals.

Temporary Paid Work or Temporary Employment

An experience in which the employee is expected to leave the employer within a certain period of time. The employer pays the employee following the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA).

Business Dictionary, s.v. “Temporary Employment” ,accessed July 19, 2017, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/temporary-employment.html

Texas Identification Number (TIN)

A 14-digit number issued to entities (that is, sole owner, individual recipient, partnership, corporation, or other organization) that bill VR for goods or services. The state comptroller requires the TIN on requests from any party receiving payment from the State of Texas.

Internal Revenue Service, s.v. ”Texas Identification Number”, accessed July 19, 2017, https://www.irs.gov/individuals/international-taxpayers/taxpayer-identification-numbers-tin

Texas Local Workforce Development Boards

The 28 Local Workforce Development Boards in Texas those are responsible for the local use of Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act funds, oversight of the service delivery system at the Workforce Solutions Offices, and the coordination of activities with economic development entities and employers in their local areas.

The Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP)

A federal agency authorized by Congress to ensure that individuals with disabilities are fully integrated into the 21st-century workforce. ODEP is a subcabinet level policy agency within the U.S. Department of Labor. ODEP sponsors policy and technical assistance resources to assist with the development of disability employment-related policies and practices.

Department of Labor, s.v. “The Office of Disability Employment Policy”, accessed July 19, 2017, https://www.dol.gov/odep/about/

Third-Party Payment

A payment to a provider received from a source of comparable benefits used for goods or services arranged for customers. For example, Medicaid or private insurance as the payer for a medical good or service instead of VR is a third-party payer.

Medical Dictionary, s.v. “Third-Party Payment”, accessed July 19, 2017, http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/third+party+payment

Ticket to Work Program (TTW)

Voluntary SSA program offered to individuals ages 18 to 64 who are receiving SSI or SSDI. TTW offers free job training and employment referrals, among other benefits: Services are provided by an employment network (EN) or by the VR program.

Social Security Administration, s.v. “Ticket to Work Program”, accessed July 19, 2017, https://www.ssa.gov/work/

Trial Work Plan (TWP)

Written plan for assessing the customer’s ability to participate in vocational rehabilitation (VR) services and achieve an employment outcome when his or her ability to do so is otherwise in question due to the severity of his or her disability.

Transaction Type

A designation that identifies a transaction as either an increase or a decrease in a program’s unallocated or requisition budget.

Transferable Skills

The skills and knowledge acquired through personal experience, such as schooling, jobs, classes, hobbies, or life experiences.

Business Dictionary, s.v. “Transferable Skills”, accessed July 19, 2017, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/transferable-skills.html

Transition Services

“A coordinated set of activities that promote the transition from school to post-school occupations and services that include post-secondary education, vocational training, integrated employment (including supported employment), continuing and adult education, adult services, independent living, and/or community participation. Transition services *must promote or facilitate the achievement of the employment outcome identified in the student’s individualized plan for employment (IPE).” [34 CFR Section 361.5(b) (55)]

Transition Vocational Rehabilitation Counselor (TVRC)

A qualified vocational rehabilitation counselor who works with a specialty caseload of primarily transition-age customers at assigned high schools. Vocational rehabilitation counselors (VRCs) do not have to be designated TVRCs to work with transition customers.

Transportation Services

Travel and related expenses that are necessary to enable an applicant or eligible individual to participate in a vocational rehabilitation service, including expenses for training in the use of public transportation vehicles and systems.” [34 CFR §361.5 (56)]

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

A form of acquired brain injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes damage to the brain. TBI can result when the head suddenly and violently hits an object, or when an object pierces the skull and enters brain tissue.   Symptoms of a TBI can be mild, moderate, or severe, depending on the extent of the damage to the brain.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, s.v. “Traumatic Brain Injury”, accessed July 19, 2017, https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Traumatic-Brain-Injury-Information-Page

Treatment Period

A period of time and/or length of services as defined by the provider that are needed for treatment to be considered completed, regardless of the number of treatment sessions.

Trial Work Experience

Planned activities that support the exploration of the individual’s abilities, capabilities, and capacity to perform in work situations, including supported employment, on-the-job training, and other experiences using real work settings.

Unfavorable Medical Prognosis

A closure reason that is selected when medical information shows that an individual’s condition is rapidly progressive or terminal.


An individual or business entity that offers goods or services to the state for sale, lease, lease-purchase, or contract. Vendors are sometimes referred to as providers.


A person who served in the active military, naval, or air service, and who was discharged or released therefrom under conditions other than dishonorable. (Title 38 of the United States Code-Veterans’ Benefits)

Vision Services

A sequence of neurosensory and neuromuscular activities individually prescribed and monitored by a doctor to develop, rehabilitate, and enhance visual skills.

Vocational Adjustment Training (VAT)

Training services that help a customer learn and adjust to the daily workplace routine, developing competencies and skills to function successfully on the job and in the community.

University of North Texas, s.v. “Vocational Adjustment Training”, accessed July 19, 2017, https://wise.unt.edu/content/vocational-adjustment-training

Vocational Assessment

A global appraisal of an individual’s work and training background, general functional capacities, and social and behavioral characteristics.

The Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification, s.v. “Vocational Assessment”, accessed July 19, 2017, https://www.crccertification.com/cve-cwa-ccaa-guiding-principles

Vocational Evaluation

A specific process involving the appraisal of an individual’s work-related characteristics, which is important for education and training to obtain and maintain employment.

The Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification, s.v.” Vocational Evaluation”, accessed July 19, 2017, https://www.crccertification.com/cve-cwa-ccaa-guiding-principles

Vocational Rehabilitation Counselor (VRC)

A qualified Vocational Rehabilitation Counselor employed by VR to lead the customer in the process of gaining skills and services needed for the customer to prepare for, secure, retain, or regain employment consistent with the customer’s unique strengths, resources, priorities, concerns, abilities, capabilities, interests, and informed choice.

Rehabilitation Services Administration, s.v. “Vocational Rehabilitation Counselor”, accessed July 19, 2017, https://rsa.ed.gov/view.cfm?rsaform=VR%20State%20Plan&state=Minnesota&grant=H126A130032

Vocational Rehabilitation Teacher

VR staff that assists in developing employment lifestyle skills, which include the skills and alternative techniques the customer needs to function confidently, efficiently, and independently in the work, home, and community environments.

Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (VR&E)

Sometimes referred to as the Chapter 31 program, VR&E is a program administered by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs that provides services to eligible service members and veterans with service-connected disabilities to help them prepare for, secure, and maintain suitable employment or achieve independence in daily living.

Vocational Services

Any services designed to achieve or maintain employment.

Volunteer Opportunity

An experience in which an individual who performs hours of service for a public agency for civic, charitable, or humanitarian reasons, without promise, expectation, or receipt of compensation for the services rendered. The individual is considered to be a volunteer during those hours.

Cambridge Dictionary, s.v.” Volunteer Opportunity”, accessed July 19, 2017, http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/volunteer?q=Volunteer

Wage Employment or Wage Earners

People who are in employment situations that are covered under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). These are salaried or hourly workers who are paid by the hour. For more information, go to http://www.dol.gov/whd/flsa/h

Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP)

A program for adults who have severe mental illness and who want to learn strategies to monitor, reduce, or eliminate uncomfortable or dangerous physical symptoms, emotions, and feelings. A participant writes a comprehensive plan to help manage his or her own illness.

Copeland Center, s.v. ”Wellness Recovery Action Plan”, accessed July 19, 2017, https://copelandcenter.com/wellness-recovery-action-plan-wrap

Work Adjustment Training

A structured program that prepares a customer for competitive integrated work in the community by teaching skills, motivating the customer, developing work tolerances, and addressing behaviors in a controlled work setting.

Work Experience

An experience that allows the customer to understand work culture, work expectations, and soft and hard skills of a vocation in a “real people doing real work” environment.   Work experience is associated with the customer’s strengths, resources, priorities, concerns, abilities, capabilities, interests, and informed choice. The experience can be set up as a volunteer opportunity, internship, or temporary paid work as long as the experience adheres to all state or federal labor laws.

Work Experience Specialist

The employment service provider’s employee who provides Work Experience Placement and Work Experience Monitoring services to VR customers. The work experience specialist must maintain the University of North Texas Workplace Inclusion (UNTWISE) Job Placement Credential.

Work Experience Trainer or Job Coach

An employment service provider’s employee who provides work experience training or coaching to help VR customers learn and accurately carry out tasks, duties, or responsibilities. Work experience trainers or job coaches provide one-on-one training tailored to meet the needs of the VR customer participating in the Work Experience and to meet the business’s expectations. Work Experience trainers or job coaches must maintain the University of North Texas Workplace Inclusion (UNTWISE) Job Skills Training or Job Coaching Credential.

Work Incentive Planning and Assistance Program (WIPA)

Program funded through a grant from the SSA. Texas WIPAs are located within six existing community organizations throughout the state.

Social Security Administration, s.v. “Work Incentive Planning and Assistances Program”, accessed July 19, 2017, https://www.ssa.gov/work/WIPA.html accessed July 19

Work Incentives

“Special rules make it possible for people with disabilities receiving Social Security or Supplemental Security Income (SSI) to work and still receive monthly payments and Medicare or Medicaid”.

Social Security Administration, s.v.” Work Incentives”, accessed July 19, 2017, https://www.ssa.gov/disabilityresearch/wi/generalinfo.htm

Work Observations

When the Supported Employment Specialist observes the customer in work environments performing work-related tasks to determine the customer’s strengths and challenges as well as interests related to work.

Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA)

Federal law that became effective in 2014 and reauthorizes and amends the Workforce Investment Act and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The law consists of five titles, and Title IV pertains to requirements for the Vocational Rehabilitation program.

Work site Accommodations

Environmental changes, assistive technology devices, techniques, or work process changes that improve the ability of an individual with a disability to perform in his or her work environment and/or complete his or her work.

Department of Labor, s.v. “Work site Accommodations”, accessed July 19, 2017, https://www.dol.gov/odep/topics/Accommodations.htm

World of Work

One of four activity types: Career Exploration, Workshop, or Seminar; Paid Work; Volunteer Work; or Vocational Class.

Youth Transition Services

Any service that develops skills specifically designed for youths with significant disabilities between the ages of 14 and 24 to promote self-awareness and self-esteem, develop advocacy and self-empowerment skills, and explore career options, including transitioning from school to such activities as postsecondary education, vocational training, employment, continuing and adult education, adult services, independent living, or community participation.

Youth with a Disability

An individual with a disability, not younger than 14 years of age; and not older than 24 years of age. The disability only has to be considered “most significant” if they are also participating in Supported Employment services.

Vocational Rehabilitation Services Glossary – Download [Optimized PDF]

Vocational Rehabilitation Services Glossary – Download

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